Great Awakening: How Title IX spurred change

University of Tennessee photos
Janet England, who played at Tennessee 1975-78, spikes the ball during a volleyball game in Alumni Gym. England was an all-state selection in 1977 and '78.

University of Tennessee photos Janet England, who played at Tennessee 1975-78, spikes the ball during a volleyball game in Alumni Gym. England was an all-state selection in 1977 and '78.

Tennessee's Holly Warlick, who is now the Lady Vols' head coach, goes in for a layup in a game in 1979.

University of Tennessee

Tennessee's Holly Warlick, who is now the Lady Vols' head coach, goes in for a layup in a game in 1979.

The University of Tennessee department of athletics executive and senior administrative staffs announced on April 16.

Executive staff

Name position salary

Dave Hart vice chancellor/director of athletics $750,000

Jon Gilbert executive senior associate athletic director $200,000

Mike Ward senior associate AD for administration and sports programs $192,000

David Blackburn senior associate AD for administration $170,000

Chris Fuller senior associate AD for development and external relations $170,000

Donna Thomas senior associate AD/senior woman administrator $170,000

Bill Myers senior associate AD for business operations/CFO $170,000

Jimmy Stanton associate AD, communications $104,040

Senior administrative staff

Name role salary

Ron McKeefery strength and conditioning $240,000

Todd Dooley compliance $110,000

Jason McVeigh sports medicine $110,000

Tyler Johnson business office $102,000

Brad Pendergrass football operations $102,000

Kevin Zurcher facilities $95,000

Joe Arnone ticketing $91,800

*Greg Hulen development $90,000

Dara Worrell housing/dining $85,000

Jason Yellin media relations $85,000

David Elliott event management $76,500

Doug Kose marketing $76,500

Thomas Moats information technology $66,300Note: Academics/director of the Thornton Athletic Center has not been hired.

*Hulen is an employee of the UT Foundation.

All sport oversight administrators

Name sport

David Blackburn football

Jon Gilbert men's basketball

*Angie Keck golf/volleyball/rowing

*Carmen Tegano baseball

Donna Thomas women's basketball/track and field/cross country

Mike Ward softball/soccer

*Dara Worrell swimming and diving/tennis

*Salaries: Keck, $90,000; Tegano, $87,823; Worrell, $95,000

Source: University of Tennessee

In June 1972 Pat Summitt was Pat Head, about to be a junior at UT Martin. Meanwhile in Knoxville, Tennessee women's basketball was an obscure enterprise.

But then, so was virtually all of women's collegiate athletics.

Last week, Holly Warlick looked around Pratt Pavilion, at the dozens of girls scampering through camp drills and the handful of Lady Vol athletes leading those drills.

"These young ladies don't understand it,'' said Warlick,

To them, opportunity is routine. But Warlick understands it. She is of the generation that came along at the perfect time to catch the wave that changed women's sports in America.

You won't find Patsy T. Mink or Edith S. Green mentioned in any Lady Vol media brochures. But without them there would never have been any need for media brochures.

The two U.S. Representatives — Mink from Hawaii, Green from Oregon — co-authored the legislation that was signed into law by President Richard Nixon on June 23, 1972. Its intent wasn't to promote women's sports but to end discrimination based on gender in federally funded educational venues.

"The women's athletic side of it kind of took it and ran with it,'' said Warlick.

Did they ever take it and run with it.

As Title IX celebrates its 40th anniversary, the journey from there to here is breathtaking.

"One day, I was not taught how to play sports,'' said ABC personality Robin Roberts, "but I still had the desire and I was playing on my own.

"It seemed like virtually overnight we had coaches, we had uniforms, we had scholarships.''

Roberts was in Knoxville last weekend to be inducted into the Women's Basketball Hall of Fame, which opened in 1999.

In 1979, Roberts was awarded, somewhat to her amazement, a basketball scholarship to attend Southeastern Louisiana University.

"I'm a Title IX baby,'' Roberts said.

So was Pamela McGee, another 2012 Hall of Fame inductee. She was a freshman at Southern Cal when she felt the wave hit.

"It changed our uniforms, it changed our facilities, it changed everything,'' said McGee. "It was almost like an awakening.''

It was an awakening.

According to one study, in 1972 about 290,000 girls played high school sports. Last year there were more than 3 million.

In 1972, women's college basketball was such an afterthought a tiny Catholic school in Philadelphia, Immaculata, was able to launch a run of three consecutive national championships.

Gradually, Title IX changed the landscape. But it took much of the 1970s to gain traction and even longer for many universities to embrace.

In 1977, Brown University fielded the first women's full varsity-status soccer team. By the 1981-82 school year, the NCAA decided it prudent to bring women under its umbrella.

In 1988, Judith Davidson was hired as athletic director at Central Connecticut State, the first woman to oversee a Division I program with football.

But from the start, there have been repeated legal challenges and various forms of foot-dragging as men's athletics — and their budgets — fought the incursion.

As recently as 2010, Quinnipiac University tried to cut women's volleyball and pass off an expanded cheer squad as a viable alternative. It didn't fly.

"Before,'' said McGee, "there was no accountability. Title IX made universities accountable.

"There's an old saying that 99 percent of life is following the money. So when Title IX came, we could follow the money.''

Ah, the money. Title IX has been expensive.

Schools must budget to stay in compliance with federal mandates that ensure women have equal opportunities in terms of sports offered, facilities and travel, to hit a few highlights.

Many schools initially saw the law as a threat, especially to their cash cow, football.

Football, with its massive numbers, has been tough to balance on the opportunity scales for women. Joan Cronan, who directed UT's women's department from 1983 until 2011, was creative.

"I looked out my window and saw a river,'' Cronan said, "and found out you can have 65 on a rowing team.''

So UT got a rowing team. Cutting men's non-revenue sports from the budget has been a fact of Title IX life. UT slashed wrestling in the mid-1980s.

Still, studies indicate the actual number of male athletes has increased in the Title IX era.

"UT and the administration got it,'' said Warlick.

Indeed, Tennessee was at the forefront of accepting Title IX.

By the time Cronan arrived in 1983, her predecessor, Gloria Ray, had laid a foundation. UT administrators, including Ed Boling, Joe Johnson and Phil Scheurer, had been receptive.

"Tennessee cared about women's athletics before it was cool,'' said Cronan. "The university as a whole said yes to women.''

The best move UT made was saying yes to hiring young Pat Head in 1974 to build the fledgling basketball program.

The Lady Vols played home games in Alumni Gym, but that was an improvement over the Physical Education Building.

Warlick, a Bearden High School multi-sport star, arrived in 1976 on a partial track scholarship but after one year had earned a full basketball ride.

"There were no recruiting trips,'' Warlick said. "Pat had to be selective. It was kind of word-of-mouth. When we first started everybody was local.''

Warlick can laugh now at the meager budget Summitt had to stretch.

"When I was a freshman we traveled to Mississippi and Pat drove the van and we were all in the van,'' Warlick said. "The assistant coaches were driving a station wagon with the luggage.

"If you lost the game and Pat's in the van driving back, you couldn't say a word and we didn't stop to eat.

"So you're telling me we get to get on a charter plane and go to LSU with the men's team? That's huge.''

Moving to Stokely Athletics Center — like the men — was huge. A lot of things were huge.

And not to be overlooked, another aspect of Title IX that was huge was the life-building skills sports offered women that for generations had been available to men.

"If you talk to the head of any Fortune 500 company,'' said Roberts, "chances are he was a former player or team captain of some sport.

"He was able to translate those skills into the business world and I have, too. My colleagues at "Good Morning America" refer to me as the team captain and I feel that way.

"I know it's because of being involved in sports.''

Title IX is at its essence about opportunity.

Tennessee was more fortunate than most in that football was able to generate significant revenue to fund that opportunity.

UT also was fortunate in chancing upon an exceptional individual force in Summitt at the perfect time in history to maximize that opportunity.

"Pat's influence is not just basketball,'' Cronan said, "but on women's sports as a whole.''

So, perhaps if there is anywhere in the 21st Century women's sports landscape where it's possible for the contemporary generation to appreciate the context of Title IX, it might be Tennessee.

"I think we can never take that for granted,'' said Taber Spani, a 21-year-old Lady Vol.

"What we get to do, playing in front of 15,000 or 20,000 people, that's all because of people like Holly, people like Pat, who went before us.''

People like Warlick and Summitt got a chance to go before them because of Title IX, which in 2002 was renamed the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act.

"I always hated that we needed a law to do what's right,'' said Cronan. "But we needed that law for the foundation.''

Follow Mike Strange at http://twitter.com/strangemike44 and http://blogs.knoxnews.com/strange

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Comments » 31

craiggrubbst writes:

Spurred*

BIVOLAR_BEARE writes:

in response to craiggrubbst:

Spurred*

Too funny, I was trying to spure that thought..lol

KNSsports (staff) writes:

The headline has been fixed. Thanks for reading.

tnbigg writes:

Title IX ended the incredible growth of the University of Tennessee's wrestling program. The dynamic growth that began under Coach Joe Boone and was advanced even more by legendary wrestling Coach Gray Simons. Facts are facts. I'm thrilled for the expansion of women's sports...but it will never be right or okay that the university discarded a great wrestling program and slapped one of the greatest wrestlers and wrestling coaches that ever lived in the face in the name of "equality".

VOLet_parking writes:

Title 9 has effectively given free rides to women's rowing, and taken away baseball scholarships. Congrats

10seVol85_Part_Deux writes:

in response to BodeaneVol:

(This comment was removed by the site staff.)

Interesting that you don't seem to care about the two foreigners on Clemson's men's soccer team, or that five out of eight players on their men's tennis team are not Americans.

Tell me troll, how does that mean title IX has anything to do with there being non-Americans on their women's tennis team?

Is title IX somehow to blame for Yemi on ur basketball eam?

FWBVol writes:

I don't see how the number of male athletes, at least not at UT could have increased since Title IX. As others have pointed out, the wrestling team was eliminated in the name of gender equity. The NCAA has lowered the number of football scholarships, baseball has 11.7 scholarships per team (I'm just trying to figure out how you get seven tenths of a player...I know the schollys are split) while the softball team has a full team on scholarship. I believe women's basketball gets 14 scholarship and the men get 12. If there are 65 rowing scholarships for women a soccer team that probably has 20 scholarships and a volleyball team that has 12-15 scholarships it would seem the women might have more athletes on scholarship than the men.

I want the women to be given a fair shot and I believe in equal opportunity. But don't go recruiting girls that have never been a boat to be on a rowing team because you have one at the same time men's sports have been cut.

If you look at almost any comparable sport i.e. men's basketball to women's basketball, baseball to softball, etc., I would dare say that at most schools the men have better attendance. It seems to me that in some ways Title IX has allowed some folks to throw the baby out with the bath water.

chuckfromwoodberry writes:

Refering to the pic, I graduated with Janet England at Holston High School. She's Jimmy England's little sister. She was the best basketball player, male or female, to ever come out of Holston High School. She decided after high school that she didn't want to play bball anymore. A shame, she would be in the WBHOF now but for that decision.

10seVol85_Part_Deux writes:

in response to FWBVol:

I don't see how the number of male athletes, at least not at UT could have increased since Title IX. As others have pointed out, the wrestling team was eliminated in the name of gender equity. The NCAA has lowered the number of football scholarships, baseball has 11.7 scholarships per team (I'm just trying to figure out how you get seven tenths of a player...I know the schollys are split) while the softball team has a full team on scholarship. I believe women's basketball gets 14 scholarship and the men get 12. If there are 65 rowing scholarships for women a soccer team that probably has 20 scholarships and a volleyball team that has 12-15 scholarships it would seem the women might have more athletes on scholarship than the men.

I want the women to be given a fair shot and I believe in equal opportunity. But don't go recruiting girls that have never been a boat to be on a rowing team because you have one at the same time men's sports have been cut.

If you look at almost any comparable sport i.e. men's basketball to women's basketball, baseball to softball, etc., I would dare say that at most schools the men have better attendance. It seems to me that in some ways Title IX has allowed some folks to throw the baby out with the bath water.

When you go on about the comparison between attendance at men's vs women's sports, try to keep in mind men's sports had about a 100 year head start.

budd#207344 writes:

I feel very sorry for any of your wives or daughters.

JayTee writes:

The only thing Title IX has proven is once again when the government gets involved in anything it's mucked up.

opportunityisnowhere writes:

I believe in equality. I believe in fairness. But Title IX isn't about equality. It's about special treatment. Funding a women's sport that loses money is what makes it so hard for atheletic programs to break even. Furthermore, I find it hard to believe that the creators of Title IX would be happy with the current method of compliance. It was created to produce scholarships for women not take them away from men. Title IX is outdated.

opportunityisnowhere writes:

in response to 10seVol85_Part_Deux:

When you go on about the comparison between attendance at men's vs women's sports, try to keep in mind men's sports had about a 100 year head start.

Oh get off it. No one attends women's athletics because no one cares. Tell me how many women's athletics events did you attend thus year?

BIVOLAR_BEARE writes:

in response to opportunityisnowhere:

Oh get off it. No one attends women's athletics because no one cares. Tell me how many women's athletics events did you attend thus year?

Although I understand where 10 is coming from I tend to agree that women's athletics in general are barely watchable.If not for Pat Summitt I would never watch WBB, in fact the product has gotten worse over the years. There was a time when the women were a pleasure to watch. Hustling and making two hand passes as well as playing good sound fundamental BB. Now the women try to play like men and make no look one hand passes that rarely if ever are executed properly. I wish Holley and the LV's success, but I can't see myself watching WBB or any other women's sports in the future. It's just not good viewing and attendance proves that statement.

lemme_axya_this writes:

in response to BodeaneVol:

(This comment was removed by the site staff.)

It seems to me that about 5 of 8 Floridians are not American, and the ones who can't finish the swim are chumming up the water off South Beach.

10seVol85_Part_Deux writes:

in response to BodeaneVol:

(This comment was removed by the site staff.)

Another moronic post from a moronic troll.

Maybe I just didn't spell it out enough for someone of your low intelligence to understand. I'll try to do better.

Why are you so upset about some non-Americans taking scholarships on women's teams, but you don't care at all about the same situation on the men's teams? Title IX is about equal opportunity for women, it has nothing to do with your gripe about scholarships going to foreigners.

I know you're a Gator fan, but I wonder if you are also a skinhead or something. Do you have a confederate flag on your trailer?

10seVol85_Part_Deux writes:

in response to BodeaneVol:

(This comment was removed by the site staff.)

While we're at it, perhaps you could explain the "Marlette" thing. WTF is that all about?

10seVol85_Part_Deux writes:

in response to opportunityisnowhere:

Oh get off it. No one attends women's athletics because no one cares. Tell me how many women's athletics events did you attend thus year?

Sorry to disappoint you, opportunityswhore, but I went to a few. I managed 3 Lady Vols home games when I was in town, and also went to see them play at Bama, Ole Miss and MSU. I went to two women's club basketball tournaments and to the club national tournament at NC State. I also went to a couple of girls varsity games at my kids' old high school.

By comparison, I got to see the Vols men's basketball team only twice, and made it to only one UT football game (unfortunately, UK), and that was the extent of the men's events I attended this past year, unless you count a couple of men's club games I hung around for at the national tournament (including UT's club team in one game).

Ringleader writes:

in response to JayTee:

The only thing Title IX has proven is once again when the government gets involved in anything it's mucked up.

I'm sure if Obama can get four more years, he will straighten this out also..........

BIVOLAR_BEARE writes:

in response to 10seVol85_Part_Deux:

While we're at it, perhaps you could explain the "Marlette" thing. WTF is that all about?

ZZ likes to call other men women's names to make himself feel more masculine..That's how you roll when you're a mere shell of a man living in your Mom's basement..

jcherrie#219531 (Inactive) writes:

in response to tnbigg:

Title IX ended the incredible growth of the University of Tennessee's wrestling program. The dynamic growth that began under Coach Joe Boone and was advanced even more by legendary wrestling Coach Gray Simons. Facts are facts. I'm thrilled for the expansion of women's sports...but it will never be right or okay that the university discarded a great wrestling program and slapped one of the greatest wrestlers and wrestling coaches that ever lived in the face in the name of "equality".

My sentiments exactly. I think it's great what's happened to women's sports but I don't think that slashing sports like wrestling helps the cause.

VolFanInTheBoro (Inactive) writes:

in response to BodeaneVol:

(This comment was removed by the site staff.)

How do you have the time to troll every team's web site? Maybe you should consider getting a life

John_10065 writes:

Sometimes I just read posts without reading who wrote the messages.

For a moment I was like who the heck are these people? Then I went back to read the poster's names and said to myself, "Well, that explains everything."

I happen to enjoy many women's sports. Besides you morons are forgetting something. The scholarship isn't about the sport..it's about the education. Just by that concept alone title IX is a good thing. A very good thing.

And it's faults are far overshadowed by it's benefits.

John_10065 writes:

in response to BodeaneVol:

(This comment was removed by the site staff.)

By your logic, there shouldn't be any non-US citizens getting scholarships. There happens to be a LOT of excellent people who are working and bettering this country who first came here on a student visa and studied partially or fully paid for with grants, scholarships and government funded loans.

ETownVol writes:

in response to FWBVol:

I don't see how the number of male athletes, at least not at UT could have increased since Title IX. As others have pointed out, the wrestling team was eliminated in the name of gender equity. The NCAA has lowered the number of football scholarships, baseball has 11.7 scholarships per team (I'm just trying to figure out how you get seven tenths of a player...I know the schollys are split) while the softball team has a full team on scholarship. I believe women's basketball gets 14 scholarship and the men get 12. If there are 65 rowing scholarships for women a soccer team that probably has 20 scholarships and a volleyball team that has 12-15 scholarships it would seem the women might have more athletes on scholarship than the men.

I want the women to be given a fair shot and I believe in equal opportunity. But don't go recruiting girls that have never been a boat to be on a rowing team because you have one at the same time men's sports have been cut.

If you look at almost any comparable sport i.e. men's basketball to women's basketball, baseball to softball, etc., I would dare say that at most schools the men have better attendance. It seems to me that in some ways Title IX has allowed some folks to throw the baby out with the bath water.

Amen! Good post FWBVol.

10seVol85_Part_Deux writes:

in response to BodeaneVol:

(This comment was removed by the site staff.)

Ok Anita. I'll try to be more clear, since you're having such a hard time thinking logically.

Why do you only care about money being used for foreign students if they are female? The exact same thing happens in the male sports, but you don't seem to care about it when it's men's scholarships going to non-Americans. Why? Maybe you just don't like girls?

I would answer your question if you could ask a logical one. Your question is so stupid, and the answer so obvious, that it doesn't warrant any type of answer. However, those men (foreign athletes) are taking money from American male student athletes. Why doesn't that bother you, when it seems to bother you so much if we're talking about females?

opportunityisnowhere writes:

The sad truth is that women's atheletics isnt nearly popular as men's. That's not sexism, it's fact. Of all the atheletic programs in the country only a handful break even. The reason is because they have to fund women's sports that don't make money. There are plenty of school's that would love to start football, a proven cashcow, but can't because that means they have to create 80 female scholarships. Do people not see the utter lunacy of this?

Tennessee for example has very successful womens athletics. Far more sucessful than the men. If women's sports aren't more popular here, then they most certainly won't be anywhere else. It's time to put an end to this. Gender eqaulity means proportional funding. If womens athletics is a financial burden schools should be allowed to discontinue them.

budd#207344 writes:

in response to opportunityisnowhere:

I believe in equality. I believe in fairness. But Title IX isn't about equality. It's about special treatment. Funding a women's sport that loses money is what makes it so hard for atheletic programs to break even. Furthermore, I find it hard to believe that the creators of Title IX would be happy with the current method of compliance. It was created to produce scholarships for women not take them away from men. Title IX is outdated.

I hate to be the one to break this to you but college sports were not meant to give fat, old, white guys something to do on Saturday afternoon. The premise was and is that the competition and learning to do more than just go to school will help prepare students for real life. Student- athletes have to balance their education and the demands of the sport. It is meant to produce better people and as the commercial says most go pro in something other than their sport. Title IX helps to give everyone a chance to learn those lessons.

blaz2102 writes:

Season ticket holder for football, basketball and now women's Softball. I think in the end the argument has to be made that the opprotunities for women at a federally funded university have to be the same for men and women..period. If not you do not think that way then perhaps you can go live in AFG. I have renewed interest in all the programs since I think we have the right coaches. I will also tell you since this year I started going to softball games and am hooked. Easilly the most exciting sport on campus besides football (live). As far as attendance is concerned how many fans were turned away at basketball games or baseball games this year, I would venture to say none. In the end remember its about educational opprotunities and our children deserve everything they get....without exclusion of race, gender, ethnic background or religion. Thats America.

10seVol85_Part_Deux writes:

in response to opportunityisnowhere:

The sad truth is that women's atheletics isnt nearly popular as men's. That's not sexism, it's fact. Of all the atheletic programs in the country only a handful break even. The reason is because they have to fund women's sports that don't make money. There are plenty of school's that would love to start football, a proven cashcow, but can't because that means they have to create 80 female scholarships. Do people not see the utter lunacy of this?

Tennessee for example has very successful womens athletics. Far more sucessful than the men. If women's sports aren't more popular here, then they most certainly won't be anywhere else. It's time to put an end to this. Gender eqaulity means proportional funding. If womens athletics is a financial burden schools should be allowed to discontinue them.

In that case, UT should also discontinue baseball, golf, cross-sountry, track and field, tennis and swimming & diving.

There might be three sports that turn a profit at UT -- football, men's basketball and women's basketball. I guess everything else should be cut because it's a financial burden on the school?

CroKev writes:

in response to tnbigg:

Title IX ended the incredible growth of the University of Tennessee's wrestling program. The dynamic growth that began under Coach Joe Boone and was advanced even more by legendary wrestling Coach Gray Simons. Facts are facts. I'm thrilled for the expansion of women's sports...but it will never be right or okay that the university discarded a great wrestling program and slapped one of the greatest wrestlers and wrestling coaches that ever lived in the face in the name of "equality".

Great post! UT was ranked #7 in the country at the time it was droppoed. We just had our first NCAA champion that year. What college program drops a top 10 NCAA sport? In UT's defense, they were one of the last SEC teams to drop wrestling - national power-houses LSU, UF, UK, etc. were ranked even higher than UT and dropped wrestling due to the lack of funds.

Athletic departments have a limited budget and when terms like "equality" are thrown around, you have to understand what that means. If you have 10 men's sports and 5 women's sports, you won't add 5 women's sports; you'll drop 5 men's sports. It's a bit hypocritical though since men's football is the golden goose that supports the entire AD. Even women's BB only breaks even.

Finally, boys' HS wrestling is the 2nd largest participation sport in the country. Kids that aren't over 6' and 200 lbs and can run a sub-4.5 40 yard dash and can slam dunk it have a great alternative in a sport that matches people according to size. Where do they go now after HS?

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